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                FAMOUS PHYSICIANS OF MEDIEVAL

          AND POST-MEDIEVAL 

             AZERBAIJAN

                  

                   by Prof. Farid Alakbarli

                        Head of Department of Information and Translation of the

                         Institute of Manuscripts 

 

                  (From the book: Farid Alakbarli. Medical Manuscripts of Azerbaijan, Baku, HAF, 2006)

 

BAHMANYAR AL-AZERBAIJANI (died in 1065/1066 AD).

A follower of Aristotle in science and a student of Abu Ali Ibn Sina. He was the author of "Al-Tahsil" (Knowledge) and other important works in which he touched upon some problems of medicine.

 

ISA AL-RAGI TIFLISI (11th AD)

Author of commentaries and explanations to Canon by Ibn Sina.

 

KAFIADDIN OMAR IBN OSMAN (11th-12th AD)

Founder and chief of the Malham Medical University in Shamakhi. Kafiaddin was born approximately in 1080. He was uncle of the famous poet Khagani Shirvani (1120-1199 AD).

 

ABU ABDULLAH MUHAMMAD BIN NAMVAR TABRIZI (1194-1245 AD).

Author of many medical and pharmacological treatises, including "Adwar al-Hammiyat" (The Principal Medicines).

 

ABDUL-MAJID TABIB (13th AD).

Author by "Kitab al-Mudavat" ("Book About Medicines", approximately 1275-1280).

 

ABU ABDULLAH MUHAMMAD BIN NAMVAR TABRIZI (1194-1245 AD).

Author of many medical and pharmacological treatises, including "Adwar al-Hammiyat" (Medicines Against Fever).

 

ABDUL-MAJID TABIB (13th AD).

Author by "Kitab al-Mudavat" ("Book About Medicines", approximately 1275-1280).

 

NAJMADDIN AHMAD NAKHCHIVANI (died in 1253).

Author of numerous commentaries to works by Abu Ali Ibn Sina.

 

NASIRADDIN TUSI (1201-1274).

The prominent Azerbaijani scholar, physician and philosopher Nasiraddin Tusi was born in 1201 in Tus, east of Iran. However, some scientists suggest that he was born in Hamadan. As a scientist and all-around genius, Tusi is known for many things: founding an observatory in Maragha (the Azerbaijani cultural center in present-day Iran), interpreting and developing the mathematics of Euclid, predicting the existence of land west of the Atlantic Ocean as well as writing more than 80 influential books in Arabic and Persian about medicine, astronomy, geometry, geography, physics, law, history, philosophy, logic and ethics. Tusi is the author by “Risalyi-Tibb” (Medical Treatise) and “Javahirname” (Mineral Cures). In his “Mineral cures” (another name of this treatise is “Tansukhnameyi-Elkhani”), Tusi describes medical properties of various precious stones, jewels, metals and minerals such as ruby, diamond, gold, silver, emerald, sapphire, turquoise. Today he is highly revered and honored in Azerbaijan, and several education institutions are named after him, including the Tusi Pedagogical Institute in Baku. Descendants of Tusi still live in Baku, Nakhchivan and Ordubad cities of the Azerbaijan Republic.

 

RASHID AL-DIN (1247-1317).

This famous physician and historian was born in Hamadan (Iran), and resided and worked in Tabriz, the capital of Iranian Azerbaijan at the time. Son of a Jewish doctor he embraced Islam at the age of 30. Rashidaddin was a physician to IlKhan Abaqa (1265-81), the Mongolian ruler of Azerbaijan. Rasidaddin founded a suburb of Tabriz, the Ilkhanid capital of Azerbaijan, named after himself the Rab' i-Rashidi, or "Suburb of Rashid. The suburb contained hospitals, mosques, markets, a bath and a library. He even had some of his shorter works, on medicine and government, translated into Chinese. Anyone who wished was given access to his works and encouraged to copy them.

 

MAHMUD IBN ILYAS (13th-14th AD)

Worked in Tabriz and Shiraz. Author of the works entitled "Giyasiyya" (Comparison),  "Elm at-Tibb" (About Science of Medicine), "Mukhtasar at-Tibb" (Shortened Book on Medicine), "Inayat fi at-Tibb" (Medical Service),  "Kitab al-Havi fi Ilm al-Madawi" (The Comprehensive  Book About Medicine).

 

YUSIF IBN ISMAYIL KHOYI (13th - 14th AD)

His major work titled "Ma la Yasa' at-Tabib Jahlahu" (The Necessary Thing for a Doctor So as Not to Increase His Ignorance) often referred to by its shortened title "Jam al-Baghdadi" (Baghdad Collection) was written in Arabic in 1311.

 

MAHMUD IBN MUHAMMAD DILSHAD SHIRVANI (15th AD).

This physician from Shamakhi was the author of such works as “Kamalname” (Book of Perfection) and “Mukhtasar Tibb” (Abbreviated medicine, 1437-1438).

 

MUHAMMAD IBN MAHMUD SHIRVANI (1375-1450).

This scholar was born in  Shirvan (present-day Republic of Azerbaijan). Then, he moved to Ottoman Empire where he compiled a number of books in Turkish including the comprehensive work on ophthalmology “Murshid” (“Tutor”).  Besides, he is the author of “Tohfeyi-Muradi” (“Murad’s Gift”) - a book about healing properties of minerals and jewels. The book was devoted to II Murad (1421-1451 ãã). Muhammad Shirvani translated from Arabic and Persion into Turkish a number of important  books on medicine and pharmacology.

 

MIRZA MUHAMMAD TABRIZI (15th AD)

This famous Azerbaijani physician was nicknamed “Fakhrul-Attiba” (Pride of Physicians) in Tabriz. His son Ala’addin was a physician of Shah Ismail Safavi.

 

ABULFATH HAKIM TABRIZI (16th AD)

Court physician of Ismail Mirza Safavi (died in 1557). He was famous for being an extremely skilful doctor. Abulfath was a small person and people nicknamed him “Kichik Hakim” (Small Doctor). After the death of Ismail Mirza, he worked as a doctor in the court of Amir khan, governor of Tabriz.

 

ALA'ADDIN HAKIM TABRIZI (15th-16th AD)

He was one of physicians of Shah Ismail Safavi and the author of the glossary of medical terms entitled "Kamili-Alai".

 

IMADADDIN MAHMUD (16th AD)

The court physician of Abdulla khan Ustajlu, the Beylerbey (governor) of Shirvan in 1549.

 

SHUKRULLAH SHIRVANI (SHIRVANZADE SHUKRI- 16th AD)

This physician from Shamakhi, Azerbaijan, studied medicine in Cairo and worked in Turkey. He treated poor people for free and was famous as the  “Poor people’s physician”.

 

YUSIF IBN MUHAMMADJAN KARABAGHI (died in 1591)

He was born in Karabakh, Azerbaijan but emigrated to Samarkand (present day Uzbekistan) during the Safavid-Ottoman wars. Karabaghi was the author of commentaries to Ibn Sina’s works on medicine and philosophy.

 

ABU TALIB TABRIZI (died in 1606)

He was the head of a large hospital in Qazvin. He worked in Tabriz, Qazvin and Istanbul.

 

HEYDAR HAKIM (16th-17th AD)

A physican from Azerbaijan,who worked at the court of Sultan Akbar the Great in Agra (India). He also wrote verses in Azeri Turkic.

 

HAKIM MUHAMMAD AMIN (17th c.AD).

He was the native of Lahijan, a district of Gilan in Iran. In search of learning he went to Tabriz, Azerbaijan, where he studied medicine with the famous Hakim Jibra'il and Hakim Muhammad Baqar. He practiced medicine in Tabriz for some time. His clinic attracted so many patients that other clinics of the city remained almost empty. In those times, Tabriz was under occupation of Ottoman Empire. Even the Ottoman ruler of Tabriz had developed strong faith in the skill and expertise of Hakim Amin.

 

Hakim Amin was fond of traveling. Once he went on a journey to Rum (European part of Ottoman Empire). On his return, he found that Tabriz was liberated by Shah Abbas Safawi, the Iranian king of Azeri origin. Muhammad Amin went to the court to pay homage and respects but, after meeting the Emperor, he got disappointed and thereafter went to Gilan to meet his relations. One should not be surprized with so cold attitude of shah Abbas. Perhaps, he knew about friendship  between Muhammad Amin and former Ottoman governor of Tabriz. Besides, the doctor visited Turkey despite Shah Abbas was in war with this country. Therefore, Muhammad Amin did not return to Tabriz, instead he left for India where he entered the court of Abd al-Rahim Khani-Khanan which was known as Maktab-i Hoshmandan (School of Intellegentsia)." It is said that Hakim Ali Gilani, the famous physician of the court of Akbar, met him while he was on his way to Burhanpur and tried to pursuade him to join the royal court. But he did not agree and proceeded to the above court where he was treated with great hospitality and was given a suitable position. Due to his extraordinary intelligence and sagacity and remarkable skill, he soon became a close associate and confidant of the Khani-Khanan. None of his books and prescriptions are extant to-date. The date of his death is also unknown.

 

HAKIM MUHAMMAD BAQAR (17th century AD).

Hakim Muhammad Baqar was born and brought up in Tabriz city which was a great centre of medicine in Southern (Iranian) Azerbaijan. His brother, Mir Baqar was a very famous and distinguished doctor and the personal physician of the Iranian monarch Shah Abbas Safawi, who also was of Azerbaijani origin. Like his brother, Hakim Muhammad Baqar was well-versed in medicine and other sciences and humanities of his time. He was a distinguished and famous physician of Tabriz. Hakim Muhammad Baqar came to India during the days of Emperor Akbar and entered the court of Abd al-Rahim Khani-Khanan whose fame as a great patron of men of letters and sciences had reached Iran long ago. Khan-i Khanan showed great honour and respect to the Hakim and made him his companion and personal physician. Hakim Baqar lived there till the end of his life and is said to have amassed a lot of wealth.

 

HAKIM JABRAIL (d. 1616). Hakim Jabra'il was the son of Hakim Muhammad Baqar. He studied sciences with the famous Mir Muhammad Baqar Damad in Qazwin and Isfahan and gained great skill in medicine. Hakim Jabra'il was known for his good nature and generosity. After the completion of his education, he began teaching at Dar al-Irshad in Ardabil city in Iranian Azerbaijan by the orders of the Shah of Iran. After some time, he came to India and entered the court of Abd al-Rahim Khani-Khanan. He did not stay long in this court and went to Deccan where he was well patronised by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the ruler of Golcunda where he lived upto 1025 A.H./1616 A.D.

 

IBRAHIM ZEYNALABDIN OGLU NAKHCHIVANI (died in 1649 AD)

This doctor from Nakhchivan city (Azerbaijan) lived and worked in Damask (Syria) as a head physician of this city.

 

MUHAMMAD TAGI TUFARGANLI (died in 1682)

He was the author of several books on medicine and philosophy including “Hashiyat al-Idda” (Commentary to the book named Idda) and “Kashkul” (The Dervish Bag).

 

MUHAMMAD HAKIM ARDABILI (17th AD)

This famous physician from Ardabil and is mentioned in many old chronicles.

 

RUKNADDIN MASUD MASIHI (1579-1655)

The famous physician, scholar and author of poems in Azeri Turkic. Masihi’s father was a doctor from Tabriz, Azerbaijan. Ruknaddin was a court physician of Shah Abbas Safavi in Isfahan. Then, they quarreled and Ruknaddin moved to Agra (India), where he spent 20 years as the court physician of Sultan Akbar the Great and Sultan Jahangir from the dynasty of Great Mugals. He is the author of the book “Zabibtat al-Alaj” (Treatment Rules).

 

MURTUZA GULU SHAMLU (17th - 18th AD)

Murtuza Gulu Khan Shamlu was the ruler (amir) of the town of Ardabil, which was a large cultural center and the former capital of Azerbaijan. He wote the book titled "Khirga" (Mantle of Dervish, 1678 AD) devoted to sexology and gynecology.

 

HAJI SULEYMAN IBN SALMAN QAJAR IRAVANI (18th AD)

The author of "Fawaid al-Hikmat" which was well-known as a serious and informative book on pharmacology.

 

HASAN IBN RIZA SHIRVANI (18th AD)

Author of "Siraj at-Tibb" ("Light of Medicine"). The book was written in Shirvan and devoted to pharmacology.

 

MIRZA HASAN SHIRVANI (18th AD)

Famous physician and head of clinic in Shamakhi.

 

MUHAMMAD YUSIF SHIRVANI (17th -18th AD)

The court physician in Shirvan. In 1712, he copied "Tibbname" (Book of Medicine) manuscript supplying it with his own commentaries in Azeri Turkic.

 

ABU AL-HASAN AL-MARAGI (18th AD)

The author of the universal medical book named "Mualijat-i Munfarida" (Exceptional Treatment, 1775-1776 AD).

 

AGHA SEYID ALI TABIB TABRIZI (1787-1898)

The author of "Qanun al-Alaj" (Canon of Treatment), "Zad al-Musafirin" (Supplies for Travelers), "Risaleyi-Jizri"(Treatise About Medicines), "Jami al-Ilal"(Collection of Diseases).

 

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